From the Greek [kheirurgia], a compound word meaning "a work done by hand". The Greek word [kheir/cheir] means "hand", and [ergon] means "work". The intent of the word is that of a medical treatment that is realized by the use of the hands and/or hand instrumentation.

Technology has advanced the evolution of surgery. Today minimally invasive surgical procedures, videoscopic procedures,  and robotic-enhanced surgery are commonplace

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Cardiovascular bypass surgery (