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Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Antoine Louis
(1723–1792)

French surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist. Following his medical studies and a long career as a physiologist, Antoine Louis was named Permanent Secretary of the Royal French Academy of Surgery. His other titles were those of Professor of the Royal Academy, Consultant Surgeon of the Armies of the King, member of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, Inspector of the Royal Military Hospitals, and Doctor in Law of the University of Paris. As a member of these academies Louis was instrumental in the design and construction of the guillotine. Initially called the "Louisette", this device was later named after another French physician in the same committee, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.

Antoine Louis' name is better know to history as the eponymic origin of the "sternal angle" also know as the "Angle of Louis" and synonymously (probably by misspelling or translation) the "angle of Lewis", and "angle of Ludwig". This anatomical landmark is extremely important as it serves as a superficial landmark for important anatomical occurrences (click here).

As a point of controversy, there are some that contest the history of this eponym adjudicating it to Pierre Charles Alexander Louis (1787-1872), another French physician dedicated to the study of tuberculosis.

Sources:
1. Srickland, N; Strickland A Angle of Louis, More Than Meets the Eye. MedTalks:
2. Ramana, R. K., Sanagala, T. and Lichtenberg, R. (2006), A New Angle on the Angle of Louis. Congestive Heart Failure, 12: 197–199
3
. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA; 1970


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Pascale Pollier

Pascale Pollier is a sculptor/artist who is interested in the melding of art and science. A Belgian National, she studied fine art and Painting in St Lucas art school in Ghent, Belgium and subsequently postgraduate training with the Medical Artists Association, London UK.

She was president and co-founder of BIOMAB (Biological and Medical Art in Belgium) . In 2010 the international collaboration program "Art Researches Science" was created, organizing exhibitions, dissection drawing classes, collaborative art/science projects, symposiums and conferences. The International collaboration partners are: Universities of Antwerp, London, Dundee, Strasbourg and New York.

Pascale Pollier

Pascale is also an external examiner for the medical art course at The Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification, University of Dundee. She is President of the AEIMS (Association Europeenes des lllustrateurs  Medicaux et Scientifiques). She works and lives in London as an artist. You can visit her website "artem medicalis" here.

Her art can be best expressed in the words of Jac Scott in his book "Language of Mixed-Media Sculpture": "Pascalle Pollier creates poetic 3D renditions of anatomically referenced 'body maps' that celebrate human life and death. The immediacy of the subject matter and her ability to capture realism provoke reactions from quietly unsettling to outrage. Her work is not for the faint-hearted - its honesty in its clear intent confronts all who gaze at the wonder of the human form in its various states of undress - shedding clothes or skin.... Pollier approaches form a medical science perspective". For images of her work, visit MEDinART.

Her nationality and studies guided her to Andreas Vesalius and with Theo Dirix and other collaborators Pascale was instrumental in the realization of the 2014 Vesalius Continuum meeting on the island of Zakynthos, Greece.

Thanks to her vision and collaborative work, now there is a new bronze sculpture on the island celebrating the famous Flemish (Belgian) anatomist. She is also deeply involved in the quest to find Vesalius' grave on the island. To this effect, and based on the few images we have of Andreas Vesalius, Pascale created a reverse-engineered bust of Vesalius which depicts what his skull might look like. Several bronze copies of this piece of art are today in exhibits in libraries and museums around the world. To fund the on-going research to find Vesalius' grave, Pascale is offering five wax copies of the bust for sale.

Thanks to Pascale Pollier for collaborating with "Medical Terminology Daily" with the article "In Search of Andreas Vesalius, The Quest for the Lost Grave - The Sequel" which she co-authored with Theo Dirix and Dr. Sylviane Déderix.

Wax bust of Andreas Vesalius by Pascale Pollier
Wax bust of Andreas Vesalius by Pascale Pollier.
Click on the image for a larger depiction