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Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Antoine Louis
(1723–1792)

French surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist. Following his medical studies and a long career as a physiologist, Antoine Louis was named Permanent Secretary of the Royal French Academy of Surgery. His other titles were those of Professor of the Royal Academy, Consultant Surgeon of the Armies of the King, member of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, Inspector of the Royal Military Hospitals, and Doctor in Law of the University of Paris. As a member of these academies Louis was instrumental in the design and construction of the guillotine. Initially called the "Louisette", this device was later named after another French physician in the same committee, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.

Antoine Louis' name is better know to history as the eponymic origin of the "sternal angle" also know as the "Angle of Louis" and synonymously (probably by misspelling or translation) the "angle of Lewis", and "angle of Ludwig". This anatomical landmark is extremely important as it serves as a superficial landmark for important anatomical occurrences (click here).

As a point of controversy, there are some that contest the history of this eponym adjudicating it to Pierre Charles Alexander Louis (1787-1872), another French physician dedicated to the study of tuberculosis.

Sources:
1. Srickland, N; Strickland A Angle of Louis, More Than Meets the Eye. MedTalks:
2. Ramana, R. K., Sanagala, T. and Lichtenberg, R. (2006), A New Angle on the Angle of Louis. Congestive Heart Failure, 12: 197–199
3
. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA; 1970


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Prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to recognize faces.  It is also known as face blindness or facial agnosia. There are different degrees of presentation of this pathology and some patients go through life without knowing that they have this problem characterizing it as just “a quirk” or that “they just are not good at remembering faces”.

Advanced forms of prosopagnosia cause some patients not to be able to recognize their own face or their own family members. Prosopagnosia is thought to be the result of abnormalities, damage, or functional impairment in the right fusiform gyrus, located in the inferior occipitotemporal region of the brain. The fusiform gyrus is related to the limbic system and seems to coordinate the systems that control facial perception and memory.  Prosopagnosia can result from stroke, traumatic brain injury, or certain neurodegenerative diseases

Prosopagnosia seems to also be congenital and run in certain families, pointing to a possible genetic disorder in the fusiform gyrus region.

Fusiform GyrusFusiform gyrus.

The etymology of the term prosopagnosia is complex. It starts with the Greek word “gnosia”, a derivate of [γνώση] (gnósi)  meaning “cognition”, “awareness”, or "knowledge". Adding the prefix “a-" leads to [agnosia] meaning lack or absence of cognition or awareness. The prefix "prosop-" derives from the Greek term [πρόσωπο] (prósopo) means f"ace". Therefore, prosopagnosia means “absence of facial awareness”.

There are famous people with prosopagnosia including Jane Goodall and Steve Wozniak.

Here is an interesting video from YouTube on the topic.

videocover010

Image courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fusiform_gyrus_animation.gif
Video courtesy of YouTube and Lucy Barnarf
Note: The links to Google Translate include an icon ()that will allow you to hear the pronunciation of the word.d