Sponsor   

Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

Click on the link below to subscribe to the MTD newsletter. If you think an article could be interesting to somebody else, click on the mail link at the top of each article to forward it. 

You are welcome to submit questions and suggestions using our "Contact Us" form. The information on this blog follows the terms on our "Privacy and Security Statement"  and cannot be construed as medical guidance or instructions for treatment. 


Click here to subscribe to the Medical Terminology Daily Newsletter

fbbuttons sm

We have 532 guests online


A Moment in History

Thomas Willis, MD
Thomas Willis
(1621-1675)

An English physician and anatomist, Willis was born on his parents' farm in Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, where his father held the stewardship of the Manor. He was a kinsman of the Willys baronets of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire. He graduated M.A. from Christ Church, Oxford in 1642. In the Civil War years he was a royalist, and was dispossessed of the family farm at North Hinksey by Parliamentary forces. In the 1640's Willis was one of the royal physicians to Charles I of England. He obtained his medical degree in 1646.

Thomas Willis might well be one of the greatest physicians of the 17th century.He is one of the founders of the Royal Society of London. He is remembered by his many publications, especially "Cerebri Anatome: Cui accessit Nervorum Descriptio et Usu", where he describes the arterial anastomoses at the base of the brain. This work is also the first detailed description of the vasculature of the brain. Willis described nine cranial nerves.

He is considered as the father of Neurology as a discipline. He used the term "neurology" for the first time in 1664. He described several neurological conditions

The Arterial Circle of Willis is a famous eponymous structure found at the base of the brain. It represents an anastomotic roundabout that connects the right and left sides as well as the carotid and vertebral arterial territories that supply the brain. Named after Thomas Willis, this structure was known well before him, but it was Willis who described its function.  If you click on the image or here, you will be redirected to a detailed description of this structure.

Sources:

1. "The legendary contributions of Thomas Willis (1621-1675): the arterial circle and beyond" Rengachary SS et al J Neurosurg. 2008 Oct;109(4):765-75
2. "Thomas Willis, a pioneer in translational research in anatomy (on the 350th anniversary of Cerebri anatome)" Arraez-AybarJournal of Anatomy, 03/2015, Volume 226, Issue 3
3. " The naming of the cranial nerves: A historical review" Davis, M Clinical Anatomy, 01/2014, Volume 27, Issue 1
4. "Observations on the history of the circle of Willis". Meyer A, Hieros, R.Med Hist 6:119–130, 1962


"Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc., and the contributors of "Medical Terminology Daily" wish to thank all individuals who donate their bodies and tissues for the advancement of education and research”.

Click here for more information


Rare & Collectible Books at AbeBooks.com 

 

Eponym

UPDATED: From the Greek [ep(i)] meaning "outer, above, or upon", and the Greek suffix [o-nym] meaning "name". The word [eponym] refers to a person's name becoming attached to an anatomical location or surgical procedure. For centuries it has been the custom to honor or remember someone by attaching their name to a structure, location, procedure, or maneuver.

This has changed as anatomists tend now to give locations and structures descriptive terms. An example of this would be the "Ampulla of Vater" named after the German anatomist Abraham Vater (1684-1751) described today in anatomical texts as the "hepatopancreatic ampulla". The controversy on using eponyms or not goes on...

There are many eponymical terms in the medical arena; following are some of them, click on the links for additional information:

Hesselbach’s triangle: Named after Franz Kaspar Hesselbach (1759-1816) (see yellow insert in superior image)
Spigelian line (linea semilunaris): Site for an Spigelian hernia, named after Adrian Van Der Spigelius (1578-1625) (see blue arrow in inferior image)
Fallopian tube: Named after Gabrielle Fallopius (1523-1563)
Cooper's pectineal ligament. Named after Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841)
Hartmann's procedure: A two-stage colon resection and anastomosis. Named after Prof. Henri Hartmann (1860-1952), a French surgeon.
Heimlich's maneuver:  Named after Dr. Henry J. Heimlich (1920 - )
Ligament of Treitz: Named after Václav Treitz (1819 - 1872), a Czech pathologist.

If you want to see a listing of the eponyms in this website, click here.

Here is an article on "The lost influence of Andreas Vesalius on eponymic anatomy".

Here is an interesting article on eponyms by Ilana Yurkiewicz published on 11/15/2012 in Scientific American: "Modern medical terms are still named after Nazi doctors. Can we change it?". It is interesting and thougthful reading.

PERSONAL NOTE: Many anatomists today are actively trying to eliminate eponyms from anatomical, medical, and surgical books. For me, this eliminates the interest of learning about the people who either first described these structures or procedures, which is one of the objectives of this website. I wonder (and this is a tongue-in-cheek comment) if the reason for this desire to eliminate eponyms is because there are so many attached to anatomical structures that there is no place for their own names! When history has forgotten about the original eponyms maybe we will see new ones with the names of modern anatomists! I do not worry, my name is attached to the "Ligaments of Miranda". Dr. Miranda

Superior image property of: CAA.Inc.. Artist: M. Zuptich.
Inferior image property of:CAA.Inc.. Artist:D.M. Klein