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Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We post anatomical, medical or surgical terms, their meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Antoine Louis
(1723–1792)

French surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist. Following his medical studies and a long career as a physiologist, Antoine Louis was named Permanent Secretary of the Royal French Academy of Surgery. His other titles were those of Professor of the Royal Academy, Consultant Surgeon of the Armies of the King, member of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, Inspector of the Royal Military Hospitals, and Doctor in Law of the University of Paris. As a member of these academies Louis was instrumental in the design and construction of the guillotine. Initially called the "Louisette", this device was later named after another French physician in the same committee, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.

Antoine Louis' name is better know to history as the eponymic origin of the "sternal angle" also know as the "Angle of Louis" and synonymously (probably by misspelling or translation) the "angle of Lewis", and "angle of Ludwig". This anatomical landmark is extremely important as it serves as a superficial landmark for important anatomical occurrences (click here).

As a point of controversy, there are some that contest the history of this eponym adjudicating it to Pierre Charles Alexander Louis (1787-1872), another French physician dedicated to the study of tuberculosis.

Sources:
1. Srickland, N; Strickland A Angle of Louis, More Than Meets the Eye. MedTalks:
2. Ramana, R. K., Sanagala, T. and Lichtenberg, R. (2006), A New Angle on the Angle of Louis. Congestive Heart Failure, 12: 197–199
3
. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA; 1970


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Omentum

The origin or etymology of the word [omentum] is not clear. The plural form is [omenta] and it refers to membranes associated with the stomach. The term was first used by Galen and later by Celsus. It was Andrea Vesalius who gave us the first clear anatomical description of the omenta.

The omenta are double-layered peritoneal membranes. There are two omenta. The lesser omentum ("Lo" in the image) extends between the liver and stomach, and liver and the first part of the duodenum. The greater omentum ("Go" in the image) projects off the stomach, reaches as low as the lower abdominal cavity and reflects superiorly to connect with the transverse colon. The greater omentum contains a larger amount of fat than the lesser omentum.

Both omenta contain a number of arteries, veins, and other structures between their layers. In the case of the greater omentum, we find the right and left gastroepiploic arteries as well as the greater curvature vascular arcade.

Images property of: CAA.Inc.Photographer: D.M. Klein

Abdominal dissection
Go= Greateromentum, Lo=Lesseromentum, 
E=Esophagus, f=fundus, P= Pylorus.