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Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Antoine Louis
(1723–1792)

French surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist. Following his medical studies and a long career as a physiologist, Antoine Louis was named Permanent Secretary of the Royal French Academy of Surgery. His other titles were those of Professor of the Royal Academy, Consultant Surgeon of the Armies of the King, member of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, Inspector of the Royal Military Hospitals, and Doctor in Law of the University of Paris. As a member of these academies Louis was instrumental in the design and construction of the guillotine. Initially called the "Louisette", this device was later named after another French physician in the same committee, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.

Antoine Louis' name is better know to history as the eponymic origin of the "sternal angle" also know as the "Angle of Louis" and synonymously (probably by misspelling or translation) the "angle of Lewis", and "angle of Ludwig". This anatomical landmark is extremely important as it serves as a superficial landmark for important anatomical occurrences (click here).

As a point of controversy, there are some that contest the history of this eponym adjudicating it to Pierre Charles Alexander Louis (1787-1872), another French physician dedicated to the study of tuberculosis.

Sources:
1. Srickland, N; Strickland A Angle of Louis, More Than Meets the Eye. MedTalks:
2. Ramana, R. K., Sanagala, T. and Lichtenberg, R. (2006), A New Angle on the Angle of Louis. Congestive Heart Failure, 12: 197–199
3
. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA; 1970


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Anterior - Posterior

These two opposite terms must be studied together. Both words are used as directional anatomical and surgical terms, and most importantly, they are relationship terms, that is, they express the spatial location of one structure in reference to another.

The term [anterior] is Latin and means "in front of". It is related to the prefix [ante-] which means "before", or "anterior" and the Latin [anticus], which means "in the very front".

The term [posterior] is more complex. Although it is based on a Latin term meaning "after", the prefix [poster-] is used as a comparative to mean "behind (a structure of reference)". Following are some examples of the proper use of these terms:

- The aorta is anterior to the spine
- The sternum is anterior to the heart
- The occipital bone is the most posterior bone of the cranium
- The trachea is anterior to the esophagus 

Because a human body is always studied in the anatomical position, in the hand, the anterior aspect is the palm and in this case a synonym for anterior is [volar].  

Image property of: CAA.Inc. Artist: Victoria G. Ratcliffe

Anterior - Posterior