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A Moment in History

Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter
Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter (1811-1859)

Dr. Thomas Dent Mütter


Thomas Dent Mutter was born on March 9, 1811, in Richmond, VA. His mother died in 1813, and his father died of tuberculosis in 1817. Thomas was orphaned when he was barely 8 years old. His father left him a somewhat meager inheritance and in his early life had to do with less that others with his objectives in life. He was well educated under the tutelage of Robert Carter, his guardian, and in 1824 he started his studies at the Hampden Sidney College of Virginia. He continued with a medical apprenticeship with a Dr. Simms in VA. He was well respected and even at his early age he would do home visits for his medical benefactor with great results. He started medical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned his MD in 1831. The new young doctor, Thomas Dent Mutter, MD was only 20 years of age.

At the time, Europe was the place to go to if you wanted advanced medical studies. Dr. Mutter had no money, so he applied as a ship surgeon to be able to cross the Atlantic. Once in Europe, he spent time in Paris, where he studied under the tutelage of Dr. Guillaume Dupuytren. He later studied for a short time in England where he met Dr. Robert Liston. Following Dupuytren's teachings, Mutter was fascinated by plastic surgery.

A chance encounter with what was to become his first well-known acquisition of a medical curiosity, Mutter started thinking on how to help those people that were known at that time as “monsters”, patients who the general public did not see, because they did not appear in public. The curiosity in question was a wax reproduction of the face of a French woman who had a “horn” arising from her forehead. This piece is on exhibit at the Mütter Museum.

Back in the United States in 1832, Thomas Dent Mutter changed his last name to give it a more “European” sound and added an “umlaut”, so now he was Thomas D. Mütter, MD. It may also be that he wanted to pay homage to his Scottish-German heritage, who knows? He opened his medical office in Philadelphia and although it took time, eventually he had a thriving practice. One of his specialties was the work on “deformities” so common at the time because of facial scars born out of the use of open fires in houses, and deformities caused by burns and loss of tissue due to chemicals used in local industry. Dr. Mütter is the pioneer of what we call today “Reconstructive Surgery”.

In 1835 he was asked to join the Medical Institute of Philadelphia as an assistant professor of Surgery. He was an instant success. Dr. Mütter was adored by his students because, he would question the students and guide them to discovery instead of just lecturing and leaving. In his Discourse eulogy of Dr. Mütter by Joseph Pancoast he writes:” The power of attracting students near him by his mingled gentleness, energy, and enthusiasm; of fixing their attention by the lucid and methodical arrangements of his Subject, by his clear demonstrations, and sprightly oral elucidations, came so readily to him, and was so early displayed) as to seem almost intuitive.” In 1841 Dr Mütter was appointed Professor of Surgery at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.

Dr. Mütter had always had poor health, even in childhood, and his dedication to his passion, long hours, took its toll on his body. In 1956 he set sail for Europe and resigned his teaching duties. He was named Emeritus Professor of Surgery. Unfortunately, the trip did not help, and he returned to the US in early 1958. Fearful of another winter in cold Philadelphia, he moved to Charleston, SC, where he died on March 19, 1859.

Dr. Mütter’s story does not end here. He was an avid collector and throughout his short life he had pulled together an impressive collection of medical oddities, samples, and curiosities. Knowing that his life was at an end, he negotiated with the Philadelphia College of Physicians to have them host his collection in perpetuity as well as the creation of a trust fund that would ensure that the public and medical students would have access to this incredible collection. Through the years this collection has increased and is known today as the Mütter Museum of the Philadelphia College of Physicians. I strongly urge our readers to visit this incredible museum. For more information, click here.

Personal notes: In the late 90’s, I attended a meeting of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists.  During the meeting I met Gretchen Worden, who at the time was the Curator of the Mütter museum. Gretchen was inspirational, fun, and a great conversationalist! I had the opportunity to visit Gretchen at the Mütter museum and had the luck to be treated to a “behind the scenes” tour. What an experience! I was saddened to hear that Gretchen Worden passed on August 2, 2004. Still, in my recent visit to the Mütter Museum, I was glad to see a new section at the museum that remembers Gretchen. Her biography can be read here.

I would like to thank Dr. Leslie Wolf for lending me the book by O’Keefe that lead to me writing this article. Dr. Miranda

1. “Dr. Mütter’s Marvels: A True Tale of Intrigue and Innovation at the Dawn of Modern Medicine” O’Keefe, C. 2015 Penguin Random House, LLC
2. “A Discourse Commemorative of the Late Professor T.D. Mütter” Pancoast, J. 1859 J Wilson Publisher
3. “Thomas Dent Mütter: the humble narrative of a surgeon, teacher, and curious collector” Baker, J, et al. The American Surgeon, Atlanta 77:iss5 662-14
4. “Thomas Dent Mutter, MD: early reparative surgeon” Harris, ES; Morgan, RF. Ann Plast Surg 1994 33(3):333-8
5. “5 Things I Learned from Thomas Dent Mütter” O’Keefe C.

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Rudolf Nissen, MD

This article is part of the series "A Moment in History" where we honor those who have contributed to the growth of medical knowledge in the areas of anatomy, medicine, surgery, and medical research.To search all the articles in this series, click here.
Dr. Rudolf Nissen (1896 - 1981).  Dr Nissen’s life is extraordinary. Born in the city of Neisse, Germany in 1896, he was the son of a local surgeon. He studied medicine in the Universities of Munich, Marburg, and Breslau. He was the pupil of the famous pathologist Albert Aschoff (discoverer of the heart’s AV node, along with Sunao Tawara).

Nissen became a professor of surgery in Berlin, and in 1933 moved to Turkey where he was placed in charge of the Department of Surgery of the University of Istanbul. In 1939 he moved to the US, first to the Massachusetts General Hospital and later to the Jewish Hospital in Brooklyn, New York. After becoming a US citizen, he moved again in 1952 to Basel, Switzerland as Chief of the Department of Surgery, where he retired in 1967. He died in 1981.

His contributions to surgery are innumerable. He wrote over 30 books and 450 journal articles. Known for the development in 1956 of what is today known as the “Nissen fundoplication” for esophageal hiatus hernia surgery, Nissen also worked with his assistant, Dr. Mario Rossetti to develop the “floppy Nissen fundoplication”, also known as the “Nissen-Rossetti procedure”. This would be enough to honor this man, still, he (with Sauerbruch) performed the first lung lobectomy and the first pneumonectomy (called then a total pneumonectomy). In 1949 he performed the first esophagectomy with a gastroesophagostomy for lower esophageal cancer.

Dr. Rudolph NissenOriginal imagecourtesy of Universit?t Basel.
His personal life is even more interesting. Drafted at 20, he fought in WWI and was wounded several times. In 1933, under the Nazi regime, he was ordered to fire all the Jewish-German assistants under his care. Being Jewish himself, he was told that he would keep his job, Nissen could not take this. He resigned his position and moved out of Germany.

Another little known fact is that he operated on Albert Einstein in 1948. He operated on Einstein because of intestinal cysts. Having found a developing abdominal aortic aneurysm, he reinforced it with cellophane, undoubtedly giving his patient a few extra years to live. Einstein died in 1955.

As a personal side note, our good friend Dr. Aaron Ruhalter scrubbed in with Dr. Nissen while serving as a surgical resident at the Brooklyn Jewish Hospital!

1. “Rudolf Nissen: The man behind the fundoplication” Schein et al. Surgery 1999;125:347-53
2. “Rudolf Nissen (1896–1981)-Perspective” Liebermann-Meffert, D. J Gastrointest Surg (2010) 14 (Suppl 1):S58–S61
3. “The Life of Rudolf Nissen: Advancing Surgery Through Science and Principle” Fults, DW; Taussky, P. World J Surg (2011) 35:1402–1408
4. “Total Pneumonectomy” Nissen, R. Ann Thorac Surg 1980; 29:390-394
5. “Historical Development of Pulmonary Surgery” Nissen, R. Am J Surg 80: Jan 1955 9- 15