Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Antoine Louis

French surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist. Following his medical studies and a long career as a physiologist, Antoine Louis was named Permanent Secretary of the Royal French Academy of Surgery. His other titles were those of Professor of the Royal Academy, Consultant Surgeon of the Armies of the King, member of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, Inspector of the Royal Military Hospitals, and Doctor in Law of the University of Paris. As a member of these academies Louis was instrumental in the design and construction of the guillotine. Initially called the "Louisette", this device was later named after another French physician in the same committee, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.

Antoine Louis' name is better know to history as the eponymic origin of the "sternal angle" also know as the "Angle of Louis" and synonymously (probably by misspelling or translation) the "angle of Lewis", and "angle of Ludwig". This anatomical landmark is extremely important as it serves as a superficial landmark for important anatomical occurrences (click here).

As a point of controversy, there are some that contest the history of this eponym adjudicating it to Pierre Charles Alexander Louis (1787-1872), another French physician dedicated to the study of tuberculosis.

1. Srickland, N; Strickland A Angle of Louis, More Than Meets the Eye. MedTalks:
2. Ramana, R. K., Sanagala, T. and Lichtenberg, R. (2006), A New Angle on the Angle of Louis. Congestive Heart Failure, 12: 197–199
. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, HA; 1970

 "Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc., and the contributors of "Medical Terminology Daily" wish to thank all individuals who donate their bodies and tissues for the advancement of education and research”.

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Leonardo Botallus

This article is part of the series "A Moment in History" where we honor those who have contributed to the growth of medical knowledge in the areas of anatomy, medicine, surgery, and medical research.To search all the articles in this series, click here.

Leonardo Botallus (c.1530- ??) Italian anatomist and physician,Leonardo Botallus (also known as Botalli, Botallo, or Botal) was born circa 1530 in the region of Piedmont. Botallus studied medicine at the italian university of Pavia, where he was a student under Gabrielle Fallopius.  Botallus graduated circa 1553.  He was an avid advocate of bloodletting, causing him to direct his anatomical studies towards the subject of the vascular system. Although he did not discover the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus, he mentions these structures by those names in both his posthumous  publications " De via sanguinis a dextro in sinistro cordis ventriculum" (1640) and "Opera Omnia Medica et Chirurgica" (1660)

In France Botallus became physician to King Charles IX. Not much more is known about Botallus, and  history fails to record his date and place of death, as well as his image. The image depicted here is from his 1660 publication. Click on the image for a larger depiction.

Botallus' name is eponymically remembered in the following structures:

Image from Botallus '<em>Opera Omnia Anatomica et Chirurgica'</em>

Foramen of Botallus: The foramen ovale, an opening found in the fetus in the region of the fossa ovalis that closes upon birth
Duct of Botallus: A communicating vessel between the left pulmonary artery and the proximal region of the descending aorta, part of fetal circulation, also known as the ductus arteriosus
Ligament of Botallus: The closed ductus arteriosus in the adult

1. "History of medicine; a correlative text, arranged according to subjects" Mettler, C Ch. 1947 The Blakiston Co 
2. "Stedmans Medical Eponyms" Forbis, P; Bartolucci, SL. Williams & Wilkins 1998
3. "The origin of Medical Terms" Skinner, AH, 1970
4. "The First Closure of the Persistent Ductus Arteriosus" Alexi-Meskishvili,V; B?ttcher, W. Ann Thorac Surg 2010;90:349 –56
NOTE: There is no known image of Botallus. Skinner's "Origin of Medical Terms" shows one, but we could not confirm the origin of the image. If you know or have one, let us know