Sponsor   

Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. We will post a workweek daily medical or surgical term, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

Click on the link below to subscribe to the MTD newsletter. If you think an article could be interesting to somebody else, click on the mail link at the top of each article to forward it. 

You are welcome to submit questions and suggestions using our "Contact Us" form. The information on this blog follows the terms on our "Privacy and Security Statement"  and cannot be construed as medical guidance or instructions for treatment. 


Click here to subscribe to the Medical Terminology Daily Newsletter

fbbuttons sm

We have 253 guests online


A Moment in History

Giovanni Batista Morgagni
Original image courtesy of National Institutes of Health

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

(1682 - 1771)

Italian anatomist, physician, and pathologist, Morgagni was born in the city of Forli. He started his medical studies at the University of Bologna, graduating in 1701 with a degree in Medicine and Philosophy. In 1712 he became a professor of anatomy at the University of Padua, Italy, 175 years after Andreas Vesalius. Morgagni was offered and accepted the Chair of Anatomy in 1715 at the University of Padua. Although Morgagni held a position at the anatomy department of the University of Padua, his name is associated mostly with his pathological studies.

Morgagni was interested in the works of Theophile Boneti (1620 - 1689), who started analyzing the correlation between post-mortem anatomical findings and diseases. He tried to establish a relation between the disease and the cause of death. In 1761 Morgagni published his most influential work "De Sedibus et Causis Morburum Per Anatomen Indagatis"  (On the Sites and Causes of Diseases, Investigated by Dissection). His work was essential for pathological anatomy to be recognized as a science in itself.

Morgagni was elected to become a member of several Academies of Science and Surgery: The Royal Society of London, The Academy of Science in Paris, The Berlin Academy of Science, and the Imperial Academy of Saint Petersburg in Russia. He is remembered today by several eponyms in anatomy and pathology:

• Morgagni's caruncle or lobe, referring to the miidle lobe of the prostate
• Morgagni's columns: the anal (or anorectal) colums
• Morgagni's concha, referring to the superior nasal concha
• Morgagni's foramina: two hiatuses in the respiratory diaphragm allowing for passage of the superior epigastric vessels
 Morgagni's hernia: an hiatal hernia through Morgagni's foramen, in the respiratory diaphragm
• Morgagni's ventricle: an internal pouch or dilation between the true and false vocal cords in the larynx
• Morgagni's nodules: the nodules at the point of coaptation of the leaflets (cusps) of the pulmonary valve. Erroneously called the "nodules of Arantius", which are only found in the aortic valve

Sources:
1. "A Note From History:The First Printed Case Reports of Cancer" Hadju, S.I. Cancer 2010;116:2493–8
2. "Giovanni Battista Morgagni" Klotz, O. Can Med Assoc J 1932 27:3 298-303
3. "Morgagni (1682 -1771)" JAMA 1964 187:12 948-950

"Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc., and the contributors of "Medical Terminology Daily" wish to thank all individuals who donate their bodies and tissues for the advancement of education and research”.

Click here for more information


Rare & Collectible Books at AbeBooks.com 

 

Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a disorder where excess bilirubin accumulates in the deep neural tissues of the brain and can cause brain damage in the newborn.

It is characterized by jaundice and a limpness of the newborn, devoid of energy. Can present with seizures, convulsions, and muscle spasms.

This condition is treatable and requires awareness from the parents if yellowness of the skin (jaundice) is detected along with the above-mentioned signs in the early days post-partum. There are other signs not mentioned in this article

The word [kernicterus] comes from the German word [kern], meaning “nucleus” or “core”. In this particular word the term kern refers to the fact that one of the most importantly affected brain structures in kernicterus are the basal ganglia of the brain (also known as the "central nuclei", found at the "core" of the brain. It also includes the word [icterus] from the Greek word [ικτερός] pronounced (ikterós). The word [icterus] in Greek was originally used to denote a yellow bird, and is now used to denote the yellow color of jaundice.

 Newborn with kernicterus jaundice
Click on the image for a larger version. 

We would like to thank diseasepictures.com for the image in this article. For additional information on neonatal jaundice, click here.

Sources:
1. Clayman, L. "The AMA Encyclopedia of Medicine" 1989. Random House, NY
2. “The Origin of Medical Terms” Skinner HA 1970 Hafner Publishing Co.

Thanks to Jackie Miranda-Klein for her contribution suggesting this word. Please consider contributing to Jackie's medical mission to Belize by "clicking here".


Parenchyma

The term [parenchyma] is a Greek term (παράένχέω). Its origin and meaning have little relation to the medical use of the term. The word means "that what is poured" or to "pour in". The actual definition of the term is "the proper mass of a solid organ". If someone refers to the "liver parenchyma", they are referring to the hepatic tissue, so it is with any other solid organ.

The etymology of the word is obscure and reflects ancient physiological theories and history. Vesalius mentions that the word was introduced by Erasistratus circa 300BC. He thought that the blood was "poured" into the organ and then this poured fluid would congeal to form the organ's proper mass. With time this concept was abandoned, but the word persisted to its modern meaning.

Interesting, there are many which accentuate the word wrongly. The accent or stress should be on the letter "e" and not on the letter 'y", so it should be pronounced "parénchyma"


Layers of the GI tract

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is formed, with a few exceptions, by four concentric layers of tissue. These are, from deep to superficial, the mucosa, submucosa, muscular (or muscularis) and the serosa layers. This is the simplified version. The fact is that there are more sublayers.

The mucosa layer is characterized by the presence of intestinal villi, which in the stomach and small intestine contribute to absorption of the digested food. The mucosa has a thin layer of connective called the "lamina propia" and external to it a thin layer of smooth muscle, the muscularis mucosae.

Layers of the gastrointestinal tract
Images property of:CAA.Inc.Artist:Dr. E. Miranda
The submucosa layer is formed by irregular connective tissue and contains on its most external region a plexus of nerves and neurons, the "submucosal plexus of Meissner", which provides parasympathetic innervation to glands and the muscularis mucosae.

The muscular layer, also known as the "muscularis" is composed of two sublayers of smooth muscle. The deep layer contains circular fibers and is known either as the "circular muscle layer" or the "muscularis interna", the superficial layer contains longitudinal smooth muscle fibers and is known as the "longitudinal muscle layer" or the muscularis externa. Between both muscle layers lies the "myenteric plexus of Auerbach", a layer of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and neurons that provides nerve supply to the muscular layer. The combined action of this plexus on the muscular layer is responsible for peristalsis.

The serosa layer is the outer or external layer and is formed by a layer of peritoneum. As such, this layer can also be called "visceral peritoneum".

There are variations from GI organ to GI organ in the arrangement, content, glands, thickness of the layers, etc. The most important differences can be found in the thoracic esophagus and most of the rectum which are devoid of a serosa layer, and in the stomach, where there is a third muscular layer, deep to the circular layer, called the "oblique layer" that contributes fibers to the lower esophageal sphincter found at the esophagogastric junction.


Manubrium

UPDATED: The word [manubrium] is Latin and mean "handle", referring to the area where a person holds an instrument or device. To exemplify this, in Spanish the vernacular use of the word [manubrio] refers to the handles of bicycle or even the steering wheel of a car. 

In anatomy, the term is used with the same meaning. In the malleus, a hammer-like ossicle of the middle ear, the manubrium is the handle-like extension of the bone that attaches to the tympanic membrane.

In the case of the sternum, the [manubrium sterni] is the superior portion bound by the sternal angle (of Louis) inferiorly.  The use of the word manubrium can be explained because in early anatomy, the sternum was known by the Latin term [gladius] referring to the similarity of the sternum to the short sword of the gladiators. The area where you hold the sword is the handle, ergo, manubrium.

The manubrium has a superior and median notch called the "suprasternal notch" or the "jugular notch". It is important because in the case of a mediastinoscopy, the incision is made just superior to this landmark. The manubrium articulates superolaterally with the clavicle and inferolaterally with the superior aspect of the cartilage of the second rib. The rest of the rib cartilage articulates with the body of the sternum.

Image property of:CAA.Inc.. Artist: Mark J. Zuptich

Sternal angle - Angle of Luis
Click on the image for a larger version.

Induration

The word [induration] arises from the Latin words induratio, meaning "thick or hard" and indurare, meaning "hardening".

It refers to a pathological hardening of tissues caused by tumoration or edema, increase of fibrous or connective tissue, or other causes. It is a good, descriptive term when stating a patient's symptoms. The term has been in use in English since the 14th century.

Note: The links to Google Translate include an icon that will allow you to hear the pronunciation of the word.


It's our 20th year anniversary!!!

20 year Anniversary

At the beginning of 1998, Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. was formed as an Ohio Corporation. Our mission is to deliver industry relevant, cutting-edge Training, Marketing, and R&D services that will enable our clients to gain a competitive advantage. Over the past two decades, Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. has become the go-to R&D resource for feasibility studies that require cadaver studies and anatomical research. We are also a preferred training solution for Sales Representatives, Distributors, Engineers, Clinicians, and Marketing Managers in the areas of Medical Terminology, Clinical Anatomy, and Surgical Procedures. Our expertise allows us to deliver training in a variety of medical and anatomical topics.

In 2012 Dr. Efrain A. Miranda, CEO of Clinical Anatomy Associates started "Medical Terminology Daily" (MTD), a website/blog as a service to the medical community, medical students, and the medical industry. MTD posts medical or surgical terms, its meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. These posts are also shared on Facebook to a group of followers.

20 year anniversary for Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. and 6 years for Medical Terminology Daily! Help us congratulate our staff and specially the contributors and friends of Medical Terminology Daily.

Our thanks to all our customers, friends, and contributors for an amazing 20 years!!! Looking forward to more!!